蜜蜂的腺体及其分泌物成分

发布时间:2011-08-02 10:10    文章来源:湖北天马养蜂场    浏览量:2562 次    【字体大小:正常 偏大 最大

ExocrineGlands,andPheromonesandOtherSecretions,intheAdultandLarvalHoneybeeApismellifera(Worker,QueenandDrone)

Gland
Secretion
W
Q
D
Adult,inthehead
hypopharyngeal(2)broodfood(includingroyaljelly),seetext
w
-
-
invertase,glucoseoxidase,andotherenzymes
w
-
-
salivaryglandsofhead(postcerebral)(2)fattysubstance
w
q
(d)
enzymes
w
1
1
mandibular(2)worker

lipoidcomponentoflarvalfood,includes10-HDA

w
1
1

alarmoralertingpheromone,alertingotherW:2-hepatanone

w
1
1
enzymes
w
1
1
queen
20ormorepheromones,oneofmoreofwhich:
-InhlbitsWovarydevelopment
-stimulatesWtoreleaseNasonovpheromone
-stimulatesWtoforage
-regulatesWcoherenceinaswarmandattractsWtoit

-(9-HDA)weaklyinhibitsqueen-cupconstruction

-(9-ODA)attractsDtoQ
-(pre-copulation)enablesWrecognitionofQ
-(HOB+9-ODA+2isomersof9-HDA+HVA)inducesretinuebehaviourinW(seetext)
1
q
1
drone

pheromoneattractingDtoD;markscongregationsite

11
d
mandibularorpostcerebral?usedinmasticatingwaxscalesandbuildingcombs
w
1
1
postgenal(2)?
w
(q)
?
sublingual?
(w)
?
d
Adult,inthethorax
salivaryglandsofthorax(2),derivedfromsilkglandsoflarvasaliva
w
q
d
alsoenzymes
w
?
?
Adult,inthelegs
tarsal(?Arnhart)worker

pheromone(atleast11compounds),attractingotherWtoforagesourceortothenest

w
1
1
queen
蜜蜂的腺体及其分泌物成分

tarsalorfootprintpheromone(atleast12compounds);with9-HDAfrommandibularglands,inhibitsqueen-cupconstruction

1
q
1
drone
pheromone(atleastlcompound)
1
1
d
Adult,intheabdomen
wax(4×2)beeswax
w
-
-
Nasonov(scent)
NasonovpheromoneattractingotherW,includesterpenoids:
-(Z)-citral-(E)-citral-nerol
-geraniol-geranicacid-nerolicacid
-(E,E)-farnesol
w
-
-
abdominaltergites(A3,A4,A5)

pheromonesenablingrecognitionofQbyW,stabilizing'retinue',inhibitingovarydevelopmentinW;attractsDtoQ(pre-copulation)

-
q
-
rectal(6)catalase
w
?
?
spermathecalpolysaccharidesecretioncontainingproteins
-
q
-
mucus(2)mucus
-
-
d
(male)accessorypeptide
-
-
d
instingapparatus:
venombeevenom
w
q
-
Dufour's?waxycoveringofegg
?
q
-
Kozhevnikov(2)pheromonesenablingrecognitionofQbyWandattractingWtoQ
-
q
-
stingsheath(2)severalpheromones
?
q
-
'stinggland'
alarmoralertingpheromones:

6acetates,mainlyisopentyl,also(Z)-11-eicosen-1-oland5othercompounds

w
-
-
alkaline?lubricantforsting
?
q
-
stingshaftwaxyesters,?lubricant
?
q
-
Larvaeandpupae
silk(2),inlarvasilkspunintococoon
w
q
d
?broodpheromone(s):
(a)incubationpheromonefrompupae,enablesbroodrecognitionandclusteringonitbyW:glyceryl-l,2-dioleate-3-palmitate
(w)
q
d
(b)inhibitsqueenrearing
-
q
-
(c)inhibitsovarydevelopmentinW
-
q
-
(d)stimulatesforaging,especiallyforpollen
?
?
?
inyoungdiploiddronelarvaecannibalismpheromone
-
-
d

 

Inaddition.volatilesfromemptycombaresometimesreferredtoashoardingorcombpheromones,althoughtheyarenotestablishedashoney-beesecretions.

Column1:(2)indicatespairedglands

Column2:9-HDA=9-hydroxy-2-decenoicacid10-HDA=l0-hydroxy-2-decenoicacid9-ODA=(E)-9-oxo-2-decenoicacidHOB=methylP-hydroxybenzoateHVA=4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanoldiacetateW=worker,Q=queen,D=drone更多养蜂技术和蜂产品知识请关注湖北天马养蜂场官方微信公众号:"honeymarket",或者加QQ号2969169050,欢迎投稿和交流讨论蜜蜂文化。

Columns3-5:w,q,d,indicatesthatsecretionoccursatsomestageinthebee'slife;()onlyslightsecretion,orglandatrophied;orglandatrophiedi-glandorsecretionabsent.

 

引自《BEESANDBEEKEEPING》EVACRANE,1990,55~57

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