工蜂的形态显微图(上)

发布时间:2011-08-01 12:01    文章来源:湖北天马养蜂场    浏览量:2950 次    【字体大小:正常 偏大 最大

本文讲述了工蜂的形态,通过显微镜从各个角度进行拍摄讲解,每张图片为一个角度,图片下面有相应的解说。

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERHEAD(FRONTALVIEW)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKEREYES

TOP.Threeocelli(twolateralandonemedial)onthedorsalportionoftheheadbetweenthetwocompoundeyes.Branchedbodyhairsareabundantaroundthesethreephotoreceptororgans.Eachofthebiconvexlensesrefractslighttoabout800well-packedphotoreceptorcells.Aslightmonitors,theseorgansmayregulatethestartandfinishofforagingactivityaswellasvisuallymeasurehorizonversusgroundtoassistinmaintaininglevelflight.(x167)

BOTTOM.Compoundeyewithitsthousandsoffacets.Undereachfacetareninephotoreceptorcells,allofwhicharecolorreceptorsandsomeofwhicharecapableofanalyzingpolarizationpatternsintheskylight.Theconspicuous,long,interfacetalhairsaremechanoreceptorsthatinformtheworkerofflightspeedandwinddirection.(x270)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERFACE

TOPRIGHTPhotomontageoffrontalviewoftheheadshowingtheelbowedcharacteroftheantennae.Thethreeocclliareseenatthevertex;totherightofthatclusteristhehairycompoundeye.Theanteriortentorialpitisnearthebottom(arrow)(x31)

MIDDLELEFTHighermagnificationoftheantenna]bases.Theantennalsocketandscleriteenclosethebulbousbaseoftheelongatedscape(firstsegment)oftheantenna.Thebasalsurfaceiscoveredwithrowsofshort(probablymechanoreceptor)hairs.Extendingforwardfromtheantennalbase,;isthebroadtriangularclypeus.Theanteriortentorialpitisvisible(arrow)(x50)

TOPLEFTClose-upofthescape-pedicellusjunction(theantennalelbow).Theshorthairsatthebaseofthepedicellusmaybeexternalproprioceptorsthatmonitorthevaryingangleofantennalflexionasdifferentgroupsofthesehairscontactandarebentagainsttheedgeofthescapeatgivendegreesofflexion.Johnston'sorgan(anauditoryorgan)islocatedwithinthepedicel.(x186)

BOTTOMLEFTAnteriortentorialpit.Thesecavitieslieintheepistomalsulcusandaredifficulttodiscernatlowmagnification(arrowsinupperrightandmiddleleftmicrographs).Thepitsareexternalmanifestationsoftheanteriorrootsofthecannulartentorium,theendoskeletonofthehead.(x409)

BOTTOMLEFTClose-upofthecorrugatedcuticularfloorandperipheryoftheanteriortentorialpit.(x1,650)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERANTENNA

BOTTOMLEFT.Surveyofthemedialsurfaceoftheultimatesix(flagellar)segments.Evenatthislowmagnification,verybrightfoci(denotingclusteredporesensilla)areapparentoneachsegment.(x65)

BOTTOMMIDDLE.Highermagnificationofthesixthantennalsegment.thethreebrightfociareareasof'fargreatersecondaryelectroncapturebvthemicroscope,andeachbrightareadelimitsaporesensillum.Inaddition,numeroustrichoidsensillaarevisibleontherightandmanyplacoidsensillaareontheleft.(x702)

BOTTOMRIGHTAntenna,posteriorsurface.Robusttrichoidsensillaaresparselydistributedamongslendershorttrichoidsensilla.(x65)

TOPLEFTTerminalantennalsegment,dorsalview.Allsensillatypesknownfortheantennaarefoundhere.Fourporeorgansareeasilyvisible(thebright,circularspots)inthemidstofmanyplateandtrichoidseisilla(atleastthreetypesoftrichoidsensilla).Electronbeamdamagemayhavecausedthecurledorbenttrichoidsensilla.(x390)

TOPRIGHT.Terminalantennalsegment,ventralview.Onthissurfaceare'atleastthreemorphologicallydifferentformsoftrichoidsensilla.(x312)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMOUTHPARTS

TOPTangentialviewoftheventralaspectoftheheadshowingtherightandleftcompoundeyes.Mostprominentarethecrossedmandibles,whicharelaterallyarticulatedandlieimmediatelybeneaththeovalplatelikelabrum.Themandiblesappeartoembracetheproximalportionoftheglossaandsurroundinggaleae(ofmaxillae),whicharefoldedbackbeneaththehead.(x'03)

BOTTOM.Close-upofthesensillaandtheirdistributiononthelabrum,mandibles,andmaxillae.Thelateralarticulationoftheleftmandiblewiththeventralmarginofthegenaisvisible.Thesespatulatejawsaredrawnin(towardtheinsect)andout.(x85)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERHEADLATERALVIEW

TOP.Leftprofileofthehead.Thecompoundeyeisinthetipperrightcorner.Therelativelyglabrousbladelikemaxillaextendsdiagonallyfromlowerlefttocenter.Behindthemakillaarethelabialpalpsandglossa.Thearrowindicatesanareafurthermagnifiedinthebottommicrograph.(x55)

BOTTOM.Highermagnificationoftheabductorapodemeandhingeofthemandibles,whichisonthedorsalmarginofthemandible(arrowintopmicrograph).Ontherightsideisthegena.Theposteriormarginofthegenaisjuxtaposedwiththemandible.Thisapodemeisseenexternallyasasmallcuticularcavityatthelateralmarginofthemandible.Thecranialabductormuscleinsertsintotheinternalcuticularinflectionformedbythisapodeme.Socketedproprioceptorhairsarevisibleonthebaseofthemandible.(x335)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMOUTHPARTS

TOPLEFT.Photomontageoftheglossa.Theglossaisextendedwhenfeedinghereitisextendingbetweenthependulousgaleae,theterminalsegmentoftheunderlyinglabialpalpsarenearlycoveredbythegaleae,andonlythetipsareexposed.Thearrowindicatestheareafurthermagnifiedinthetoprightmicrograph.(x34)

TOPRIGHT.Externalopeningofthemandibulargland(arrow)exposedwhenthemandiblesarewideopen.(x100)

MIDDLERIGHTHighermagnificationofthecuttingedgeoftherightmandible.Trichoidandbasiconicsensillaarepresentontheexteriorsurfaceofthemandibles;theseputativechemoreceptorsmaybegustatoryinnatureandassistintastingmaterialsthatarebeingmanipulatedandchewedbythemandibles. Thelongersocketedhairsmaybemechanoreceptorsthat,oncontactwiththeothermandible,provideproprioceptiveinformationaboutthedegreeofmandibularretraction.(x110)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERGLOSSA

MIDDLE.Surveyoftheglossaprojectingoutwardfromthepartialclaspingofthetwomaxillarygalea.(x53)

TOPBilobedglossacoveredwithhairsthatarisefromaseriesofcuticularrings.Theintersegmentalmembraneintervenesbetween,andisoverlaidby,thehairs.(x680)

BOTTOMLEFT.Flabellum(tonguetip).Theterminus,attachedtotheglossabyasingleventralhinge,isspatulateandtippedwithbranchinghairs.(x600)

BOTTOMRIGHT.Close-upoftheflabellumshowingitsspoonlikegeometryandthehairfringearoundthe"spoon."Theprecisefunctionofthisstruc-tureisunknownalthoughitmayserveasafilterforthenectar,whichapparentlymustflowintothe"spoon"beforeitcanbeimbibedbythebee.(x650)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMOUTHPARTS,POSTERIORVIEW

LEFTPhotomontageoftheposteriorviewofthemouthparts.Theoccipitalforamen(topofthefieldisstilloccupiedbytheseveredtissuesthatpassfromheadtothorax.Flankingtheforamenaretwoposteriortentorialpits.Projectingdirectlyclownfromtheforamen,inthehollow(fossaoftheproboscis)behindthehead,arethelabiumandpairedmaxillae.Thetriangularpieceimmediatelybelowtheforamenisthepostmentum.Themaxillaegape,revealingthelong,hairyglossa,whichishalfclaspedbythelabialpalps.(ComparethismicrographwithPlate1.10,thequeenmouthparts.)Lastly,the"shoulders"behindandoneithersideofthelabium(prementum)arethemandibles.Thetoparrowindicatesanareathatisfurthermagnifiedinthetoprightmicrograph,thebottomarrowanareainthebottomrightmicrograph.Themiddlearrowpointstotheapicalpapillaofthemaxillarypalp,shownathighermagnificationinthecenterrightmicrograph.(x34)

TOPRIGHTHighermagnificationoftheprementum-mandiblesectorshowingthebranchedbodyhairsalongwiththreekindsoftrichoidsensilla(loparrowInleftmicrograph(x230)

MIDDLERIGHT.Apicalpapillaofthemaxillarypalp.Oneslendersensillaisseennearitstip(middle,arrowintheleftmicrograph).(x450)

BOTTOMRIGHTArrayofspine-tippedcuticularscales(bottomarrowinleftmicrographontheinteriorsurfaceofthemaxilla(galeae).Onthelateralmarginofthemaxilla,relativelylargesocketedhairs(sensillachaetica)ariseatregularintervals.Thesesensorsareknowntobemechanoreceptorsandchemoreceptors(thelatterforsugarandsalts).(x1,200)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMOUTHPARTS,ANTERIORVIEW

TOPSurveyofworkermouthparts(thecompoundeyeandvertexoftheheadarecroppedawayatthetop).Maxillaeandlabiumappearasatwotieredawning(maxillaeoverlabium)overtheglossa.Twomajorsegmentsofthemaxillaeareprominent.Ontherightisthestipeswithitsfringeofsetae.Theleftmostsegments,connectingwiththestipes,arethegaleaewiththeirbare-ringed(basal)andthensetae-fringedmargins.Apairoflabialpalpsflanksthedecumbent,elongateglossa.Whennotinusetheglossaisretracted,mergedwiththelabium,enclosedbythemaxillae,andthenfoldedbackatthehinges(arrows)ComparethismicrographwithPlate3.8,theretracteddronemouthparts.(x60)

BOTTOMRIGHTPosterior(central)sectorofthehead.Theprincipalfeatureistheduckbill-shapedpostmentumofthelabium.Thisscleritepointsrearwardtowardthecervix(notvisible).Abovethepostmentumandjoiningitistheprementumwithitsfewshortcuticularhairs.Thecuticular"cradle"intowhichthepostmentumfitsisthelorum.(x175)

BOTTOMLEFTHighermagnificationofthenear-contactzonebetweenlorum(ontheleft)andpostmentum(ontheright).Theinteresting,pebblegrainedinnersurfaceofthepostmentumisvisible.(x270)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMAXILLARYPALP

BOTTOM.Surveyoftheanteriolateralportionofthehead(upperarrowintopmicrograph,Plate2.10).Thethumblikecuticularappendageinthecenteristhemaxillarypalp,whichistotherightofthelabium.Behindthispalp(extremelowerright)istheinteriorsurfaceofthemandiblewithitsnumeroushairsprojectinginward.(x432)

TOPClose-upofahairplatecontainingabouttwodozenmechanoreceptorhairslocatedatthebaseofthemaxillarypalp.Thehairsatthecurvedmargin(upperright)arebentwheneverthepalpismovedmediallysothesemechanoreceptorscansignalitsmovementandpositionrelativetotheothermouthparts.(x2,520)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERMAXILLAANDLABIUM

TOPLEFT.Twolabialpalps(eachpartlycoveredbythegaleaofcorrespondingsidemaxilla)oneachsideoftheveryhairyglossa.(x119)

TOPRIGHT.Four-segmentedlabialpalp.(x119)

BOTTOMRIGHT.Frontalviewofthelabialpalpshowingtheultimatesegmentwithnumeroussensilla.(x372)

BOTTOMLEFT.Close-upofanannulatedgaleawithitsrobustelongatetrichoidsensilla.Ontherightisthescalysurfaceofthelabialpalp.(x480)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERORALCAVITY

BOTTOMBaseoftheextendedproboscis,posteriorview.Anglingoffandextendingtothelowerleftcorneristhestipes.Atcenteristheinteriorsurfaceoftheleftmandible.Totherightofcenteristherightmandible,whichisfurthermagnifiedinthecenterrightmicrograph.(x75)

MIDDLERIGHTInteriorsurfaceofthepartiallyclosedmandibles.Thearrowsindicateareasfurthermagnifiedinthetopandbottomleftmicrographs.(x3,200)

BOTTOMLEFT.Cuticularscalesintheoralcavity(lowerarrowincenterrightmicrograph).(x3,200)

TOPClose-upoftheinteriorsurfaceoftheoralcavity(upperarrowincenterrightmicrograph).(x3,200)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERPOSTGENALAREA

BOTTOMVentralviewoftheoccipitalregionoftheheadcapsule.Aportionofthecervix(neck)(centertop)isflankedbytheposteriortentorialpits.The"Gothicarch"isformedbythetwopostgenalinflectionsthatsurroundthefossaoftheproboscis.AmembranousregionwithparallelfoldsJoinsthepostmentum(the"duckbill"atthebottomofthefield).(x108)

TOPCuticularspinesontheintersegmentalmembraneintheareaimmediatelybelowthetipofthepostmentum.(x4,320)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERCERVIX,VENTRALVIEW

TOPPosterioventralviewofheadwherethemembranouscervix(neck)(coveredwithranksofshortspines)Joinsthehead.Oneithersideofthecervixaretheposteriortentorialpits.Theoccipitalforamen(wherethecervixjoinsthehead)isflankedbytwohairplates,eachconsistingof30short,trichoidsensilla(arrow)whicharebentwhentheheadturnslaterallytowardthecervix.Thesesensillaaregravityreceptors.Thepre-mentumextendsupward,pointingtothecervix.(x80)

TOPLEFTClose-upofthe30socketedhairs(knownmechanoreceptorsthatmakeuptheleftlateraloccipitalhairplate.Theseareadjacenttothecervix(arrowintoprightmicrograph).(x720)

BOTTOMPosteriorofthehead.Thehairplateislocatedintheventromedialregionofthehead(arrowintoprightmicrograph).Thesetrichoidsensillaareprobablygravityreceptors(andexternalproprioceptors)thatinformthecentralnervoussystemabouttheattitudeoftheheadand/ormouthpartsrelativetotherestofthebody.Signalingmaybeaccomplishedwhenthehairscontactandarebentbythepostmenturnorthecervicalsclerite.(x720)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERCERVIXANDVENTRALPOSTOCCIPUT

MIDDLELEFT.Posteriorviewoftheheadshowingthecervix(neck).Oiltheleftisthelefttentorialpit.Intherighthalfofthefieldthecervicalmembraneconnectstheoccipitalforamenoftheheadtotheprescutumofthethorax.Theupperarrowpointstotheareafurthermagnifiedinthebottomrightmicrograph;thelowerarrowpointstotheareashowninthetopmicrograph.(x68)

BOTTOMLEFTClose-upofthelefttentorialpit.Thelarge"hole"istheexternalmanifestationofaninwardlydirectedposteriortentorialarm,animportantconstituentoftheendoskeleton,ortentorium.Thesmallcavityaboveleadstothecannulartentorialbridge;thesmalleronebelowisatubethatextendsventrallyinwardandterminatesattheoccipitalforamen.(x220)

BOTTOMRIGHTArrayofbodyhairsontheventralportionofthecervix.Thesemayengagethecervicalhairplateontheposteriorportionofthehead(upperarrowinmiddleleftmicrograph)tomonitorheadmovement(X980)

TOPTheventralcervicalhairplateontheprescutum(lowerarrowinmiddleleftmicrograph).Thesethreedozenorsosocketedhairsconstituteamajorexternalproprioceptororganthatmonitorsheadflexion.Specifically,thesemechanoreceptorsrecordthedegreeofventral(downward)projectionoftheheadasthelowerpartoftheheadtouchesthesehairsonthe"throat."(x875)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERCERVIX,VENTRALVIEW,CLOSE-UP

TOPRIGHTVentralcervixwithanunidentifiedmassthatmaybeacongealedsecretion.(SeealsoPlate2.15,toprightmicrograph.)(x910)

BOTTOMVentralviewofthecervixwiththecongealedmassremovedTheareabeneaththemassisquiteunlikethesurfaceoftherestofthecervicalmembrane.Numerousunoriented,unsocketed,shorthairsarisefromnonsclerotizedcuticle.(x3,060)

TOPLEFT.Ventralviewshowingseveralranksofthesetriangularcuticularscales,fromeachofwhichissueaboutadozenhairsofvaryinglengths.(x1,320)

MIDDLELEFTClose-upofseveraltriangularscalesshowingthatthelongesthairsemanatefron-ithetriangularapex.Aslightfilm(probablyhoney)isvisibleatthebaseofsomeofthescales.(x2,750)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERCERVIX,DORSALVIEW

BOTTOMDorsalcervix(neck).Theflexible,nonsclerotizedmembranousnatureofthecervix(neck)isevident.(Theneckhasbeenstretchedonthisspecimen.)Apairoflateralhairplates(oneperside)isvisible.Certainmechanoreceptorhairsineachplatearestimulatedwhenthe\-engagethebackofthehead(arrow)(x94)

TOPRIGHTLateralhairplate(theheadistothetop,thethoraxatthebottom).(x225)

TOPLEFTHead,posteriorview.Thevaultedareaintheupperregionofthisfieldisthebackofthehead,thebasalportionthethorax.Sensoryhairssituatedonthecurvedplateengagethebackofthehead,(x240)

MIDDLELEFT.Surfacereliefofthecervicalmembrane,dorsalview.Therowsofsmallroundedtubercleshavesmall,discreteprojectionsarisingfromthem.(x1,000)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKERWINGS

RIGHT.Photomontageofworkerwings,asurveyofmostofthemetathoracic(hind)wingcoveringasizablefractionofthemesothoracic(fore-)wing.Mostofthewingsclerites(platesatthewingbase)areshroudedwithhairs.(x27)

TOPLEFT.Wingbaseswithwingsfoldedbackovertheabdomen.Thehairy,roughlyrectangularpleurite(at10o'clock)isthesupraepimeron;immediatelybelowitistheintraepimeron.(x55)

MIDDLELEFT.Pitmarkingtheapodemeonthepleuralsulcusbetweentheintraepimeronandepisternum.(x240)

BOTTOMLEFT.Dorsolateralviewofwingscleriteswithwingsextended(theheadistotheleft).Theposteriornotalwingprocessisprominent(at8oclock)withtheradius(wingvein)approachingthesideoftheprocess.Withtheirwings"disengaged"andfoldedbackoverthebody,beesareabletovibratetheirwingmusclestoproduceheatandalsosounds,suchasthosecreatedwhiledancing.(x50)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

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TOPLeadingedgeanduppersurfaceoftheforewing.Thecostalribsarecoveredwithshortandrnedium-lengthhairs.Hairsarisingfromribsmaybeinnervatedbecausethehollowribcanacconuriodatcnervesandheiriolymph.(x170)

BOTTOMLeadingedgeanduppersurfaceofthehindwingshowingthebankofhooksthatconnectswiththecurledposteriormarginoftheforewing.Thehind-winghooksoftheworkeraresomewhatsmallerandmoreangulatedthanthoseofthedrone.Rowsofmicrotrichiastudthesurfaceofthehindwing.(x318)

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