The life cycle of the bumblebee (B.terrestris)(熊蜂的一生)

发布时间:2011-09-18 10:18    文章来源:湖北天马养蜂场    浏览量:2239 次    【字体大小:正常 偏大 最大

Bumblebeesaresocialinsects,i.e.thereisacertainlevelofinterrelationbetweenindividualsofthesamecolony.Thelatterisdividedintoanumberofgroups,eachwithaspecifictask.Atthetopofthehierarchystandsthequeen,whodoesnotdifferphysicallyfromtheworkersexceptfromhersize,whichismuchbiggerthanthesizeofthelargestworker.

Theearthbumblebee,BombusterrestrisisthemostcommonofthreespeciesfoundinIsrael.ItislocatedinMt.Hermon,theupperGalilee,thelowerGalilee,andMt.Carmel.ThebodyofB.terrestrisiscoveredwithblackhairsandtwostripesofyellow-brownhairs,oneontheprothorax,andtheotherontheupperpartofthesecondabdominalsegment.Thetipoftheabdomeniscoveredwithwhitehairs.Theheadisrelativelysmall;itslengthdoesnotexceeditswidth.

Thesizeofthequeenbumblebeerangesbetween20-23mminlengthwitha38-43mmwingspan.Theaveragesizeofaworkerbeerangesbetween11-17mminlengthwitha22-34mmwingspan.Themale,whohassimilarcoloringtotheworkersandqueen,variesbetween14-16mminlengthandhasawingspanof30-33mm.Unlikethequeenandworkers,themaledoesnotsting.

Thelifecycleofthebumblebeeisillustratedinthechartbelow:Inspringtime,thematedqueenleavesherhibernationharborageandseeksoutanestsite(a);Inthenest,thequeenbuildsathimble-shapedbeeswaxhoneypotinwhichshestoresnectar.Nearbysheformsalumpoffield-collectedpollen,excavatesadepressioninitandlaysoneormoreeggsinthedepression,coveringitwithwax(b);Theeggshatchandthelarvaefeedontheirbedofpollen.Astheygrow,thequeenopensthewaxcoveringandaddsmorepollenandnectar.Sheperchesonthebroodclump,incubatingthelarvaetospeedtheirdevelopment.Thelarvaematureandeachspinsacocoonofsilkinwhichitpupatesandcompletesdevelopmentintoanadult(c);Afterthenewworkersemerge,theiremptycocoonsareusedasstoragepotsforhoneyorpollen.

Morepollenlumpswitheggsaredepositedalongsideorontopoftheoldones,andthustheirregularcombgrows.Eventuallythereareenoughworkerbeestodotheforagingandhousekeepingtasks.Thequeenconcentratesonlayingeggs.Thecolonypeakstoafewhundredindividuals(d);Thecolonyswitchesfromproducingfemaleworkerstoproducingmalesandnewqueens,sometimeinmid-tolatesummer(e);Themalesleavethenestafewdaysafteremerging.Thenewqueensmatewiththemales.Theoldqueendiesbeforewinter(f);Thenewmatedqueensleavethenestandseekoutasuitableoverwinteringsitewheretheywillstaythroughoutwinter(g).

Thelifespanofthequeenrangesbetween12-24weeks(18weeksonaverage),beginningfromthemomentshestartstolayeggs.Thedevelopmenttimefromeggtoadultis3-4weeks.Thelifeexpectancyofaforagerbeeisabout3weeks,whichbringsthetotallifecycleofsuchaworkertoabout7weeks.Aworkerbee,whichspendsallhertimeinthenest,iscapableoflivingupto12weeks.

Uponfoundingthenest,amassiveegglayingtakesplacebythequeen(16-20eggsaday).Thepopulationofworkersdevelopsrapidly.Pollenand/ornectarforagingisveryintensiveinorderBumblebeesaresocialinsects,i.e.thereisacertainlevelofinterrelationbetweenindividualsofthesamecolony.Thelatterisdividedintoanumberofgroups,eachwithaspecifictask.Atthetopofthehierarchystandsthequeen,whodoesnotdifferphysicallyfromtheworkersexceptfromhersize,whichismuchbiggerthanthesizeofthelargestworker.Theearthbumblebee,B.terrestrisisthemostcommonofthreespeciesfoundinIsrael.ItislocatedinMt.Hermon,theupperGalilee,thelowerGalilee,andMt.Carmel.ThebodyofB.terrestrisiscoveredwithblackhairsandtwostripesofyellow-brownhairs,oneontheprothorax,andtheotherontheupperpartofthesecondabdominalsegment.Thetipoftheabdomeniscoveredwithwhitehairs.Theheadisrelativelysmall;itslengthdoesnotexceeditswidth.

Thesizeofthequeenbumblebeerangesbetween20-23mminlengthwitha38-43mmwingspan.Theaveragesizeofaworkerbeerangesbetween11-17mminlengthwitha22-34mmwingspan.Themale,whohassimilarcoloringtotheworkersandqueen,variesbetween14-16mminlengthandhasawingspanof30-33mm.Unlikethequeenandworkers,themaledoesnotsting.

Thelifecycleofthebumblebeeisillustratedinthechartbelow:Inspringtime,thematedqueenleavesherhibernationharborageandseeksoutanestsite(a);Inthenest,thequeenbuildsathimble-shapedbeeswaxhoneypotinwhichshestoresnectar.Nearbysheformsalumpoffield-collectedpollen,excavatesadepressioninitandlaysoneormoreeggsinthedepression,coveringitwithwax(b);Theeggshatchandthelarvaefeedontheirbedofpollen.Astheygrow,thequeenopensthewaxcoveringandaddsmorepollenandnectar.Sheperchesonthebroodclump,incubatingthelarvaetospeedtheirdevelopment.Thelarvaematureandeachspinsacocoonofsilkinwhichitpupatesandcompletesdevelopmentintoanadult(c);Afterthenewworkersemerge,theiremptycocoonsareusedasstoragepotsforhoneyorpollen.

Morepollenlumpswitheggsaredepositedalongsideorontopoftheoldones,andthustheirregularcombgrows.Eventuallythereareenoughworkerbeestodotheforagingandhousekeepingtasks.Thequeenconcentratesonlayingeggs.Thecolonypeakstoafewhundredindividuals(d);Thecolonyswitchesfromproducingfemaleworkerstoproducingmalesandnewqueens,sometimeinmid-tolatesummer(e);Themalesleavethenestafewdaysafteremerging.Thenewqueensmatewiththemales.Theoldqueendiesbeforewinter(f);Thenewmatedqueensleavethenestandseekoutasuitableoverwinteringsitewheretheywillstaythroughoutwinter(g).

Thelifespanofthequeenrangesbetween12-24weeks(18weeksonaverage),beginningfromthemomentshestartstolayeggs.Thedevelopmenttimefromeggtoadultis3-4weeks.Thelifeexpectancyofaforagerbeeisabout3weeks,whichbringsthetotallifecycleofsuchaworkertoabout7weeks.Aworkerbee,whichspendsallhertimeinthenest,iscapableoflivingupto12weeks.

Uponfoundingthenest,amassiveegglayingtakesplacebythequeen(16-20eggsaday).Thepopulationofworkersdevelopsrapidly.Pollenand/ornectarforagingisveryintensiveinordertomeetthedemandofthebrood.Thisperiodisthereforetheoptimaltimetousethehivefornaturalpollinationpurposes.Lateron,upontheappearanceofyoungqueensandmales,thecolonydeclines:thecontrolofthefounderqueenoverthecolonyloosens.Thenumberofbrooddemandingfooddecreases,andsodoesthenumberofforagers.Atthisstagetheefficiencyofthehiveforpollinationisreduced.Thecontributionofmalestopollinationvarieswiththetypeofthecrop.Malesvisitflowersonlyfornectar.Doingthisactivityenablesthemtopollinate.Thetomatoflower,forinstance,whichcompletelylacksnectar,doesnotattractbumblebeemales,hencetheircontributiontotomatopollinationisliterallyzero.

Thelifecycleofthebumblebee(B.terrestris)(熊蜂的一生)

a.Inspringtime,thematedqueenleavesherhibernationharborageandseeksoutanestsite.

b.Inthenest,thequeenbuildsathimble-shapedbeeswaxhoneypotinwhichshestoresnectar.Nearbysheformsalumpoffield-collectedpollen,excavatesadepressioninitandlaysoneormoreeggsinthedepression,coveringitwithwax.

c.Theeggshatchandthelarvaefeedontheirbedofpollen.Astheygrow,thequeenopensthewaxcoveringandaddsmorepollenandnectar.Sheperchesonthebroodclump,incubatingthelarvaetospeedtheirdevelopment.Thelarvaematureandeachspinsacocoonofsilkinwhichitpupatesandcompletesdevelopmentintoanadult.

d.Afterthenewworkersemerge,theiremptycocoonsareusedasstoragepotsforhoneyorpollen.Morepollenlumpswitheggsaredepositedalongsideorontopoftheoldones,andthustheirregularcombgrows.Eventuallythereareenoughworkerbeestodotheforagingandhousekeepingtasks.Thequeenconcentratesonlayingeggs.Thecolonypeakstoafewhundredindividuals.

e.Thecolonyswitchesfromproducingfemaleworkerstoproducingmalesandnewqueens,sometimeinmid-tolatesummer.更多养蜂技术和蜂产品知识请关注湖北天马养蜂场官方微信公众号:"honeymarket",或者加QQ号2969169050,欢迎投稿和交流讨论蜜蜂文化。

f.Themalesleavethenestafewdaysafteremerging.Thenewqueensmatewiththemales.Theoldqueendiesbeforewinter.

g.Thenewmatedqueensleavethenestandseekoutasuitableoverwinteringsitewheretheywillstaythroughoutwinter.

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