蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病,蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病如何防止,蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病防治

发布时间:2014-10-28 09:46    文章来源:湖北天马养蜂场    浏览量:2559 次    【字体大小:正常 偏大 最大

欧洲蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病(又称黑幼虫病、纽约蜜蜂病)是由蜂房蜜蜂球菌引起蜜蜂幼虫的一种恶性、细菌性传染病。以3~4日龄未封盖幼虫死亡为特征。OIE将其列为B类疫病。

1病原学

蜂房蜜蜂球菌属蜜蜂球菌属。本菌必须含5%CO2条件下培养,为革兰氏阳性、披针形、单个、成对或链状排列,无芽,无运动性,为厌氧乃至微需氧的细菌。对外界不良环境的抵抗力较强,在干燥幼虫尸体保存毒力3年,在巢脾或蜂蜜里可存活1年左右,在40℃下,每立方米空间含50毫升福尔马林蒸气,需3小时才能杀死。

2流行病学

被污染的蜂蜜、花粉、巢脾是主要传染源。蜂房蜜蜂球菌能在尸体及蜜粉脾、空脾中存活多年。蜂群内一般通过内勤蜂饲喂和清扫活动进行传播,饲喂工蜂是主要传播者。蜂群间主要是通过盗蜂和迷巢蜂进行传播。养蜂人员不遵守卫生操作规程,任意调换蜜箱、蜜粉脾、子脾以及出售蜂群、蜂蜜、花粉等商业活动,导致疫病在蜂群间及地区间传播。

感染动物为蜜蜂幼虫,各龄及各个品种未封盖的蜂王、工蜂、雄蜂幼虫均可感染,尤以1~2日龄幼虫最易感,成蜂不感染;东方蜜蜂比西方蜜蜂易感,在我国以中蜂发病最重。

蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病,蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病如何防止,蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病防治

本病多发生于春季,夏季少发或平息,秋季可复发,但病情较轻。其次,该病易于蜂群群势较弱和巢温过低的蜂群,而强群很少发病,即使发病也常常可以自愈。

3临床症状和病理变化

本病潜伏期一般为2~3天。《陆生动物卫生法典》规定为45天(冬季除外,因随国家不同而不同)。

以3~4日龄未封盖幼虫死亡为特征。尸体位置错乱,呈苍白色,以后渐变为黄色,最后呈深褐色,并可见白色、呈窄条状背线(发生于盘曲期幼虫,其背线呈放射状)。尸体软化、干缩于巢房底部,无黏性但有酸臭味,易被工蜂清除而留下空房,与子房相间形成插花子脾。

4诊断

4.1从临床可疑为欧洲蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病蜂群中,抽取2~4天的幼虫脾1~2张,仔细检查子脾上幼虫的分布情况。如发现虫、卵交错,幼虫位置混乱,颜色呈黄白色或暗褐色,无黏性,易取出,背线明显,有酸臭味,结合流行病学可初步诊断为欧洲蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病,确诊需进一步做实验室诊断。更多养蜂技术和蜂产品知识请关注湖北天马养蜂场官方微信公众号:"honeymarket",或者加QQ号2969169050,欢迎投稿和交流讨论蜜蜂文化。

4.2实验室诊断

微生物学诊断:

(1)革兰氏染色镜检:挑取可疑幼虫尸体少许涂片,用革兰氏方法染色,镜检。若发现大量披针形、紫色、单个、成对或成链状排列的球菌,可初步诊断为本病。

(2)致病性试验:将纯培养菌加无菌水混匀,用喷雾方法感染1~2天的小幼虫,如出现上述欧洲蜜蜂幼虫腐臭病的症状,即可确诊。

5防治

加强饲养管理,紧缩巢脾,注意保温,培养强群。严重的患病群,要进行换箱、换脾,并用下列任何一种药物进行消毒:①用50毫升/立方米福尔马林煮沸熏蒸一昼夜。②O.5%次氯酸钠或二氧异氰尿酸钠喷雾;③0.5%过氧乙酸液喷雾。

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